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Dr Carina Lemmer


About the author: Dr Carina Lemmer

After completing a BSc.Hons. degree in Physics, Carina Lemmer obtained a Master's degree in Computer Science. The most interesting and challenging computer work at the time was to be found with the large mining houses in Johannesburg. She started as a Systems Analyst at Rand Mines, a mining house known for its coal and gold mining enterprises. There she became aware of the pioneering work done in ore evaluation by Prof. Danie Krige, whose name is linked to "kriging" in geostatistics. Carina thereafter took up a position at the erstwhile Gold Fields of South Africa where the work provided a broad scope of different mineral deposits to study and model.

While attending a workshop at Fontainebleau in France Carina met Prof. André Journel, who had just been appointed to the Applied Earth Sciences Department at Stanford University. This lucky circumstance and the generosity of Gold Fields led to sponsored PhD studies at Stanford University. Aside from the excellent graduate courses in Applied Earth Sciences, the requirement was also to take some undergraduate courses in Geology. It was in a Geology course by Prof. Gordon Brown that Carina first learned about mantle plumes or "hotspots", and it suddenly answered many questions. After twelve years at Gold Fields she resigned from her position as Assistant Manager of the Management Services Division to become an independent consultant to the mining industry.

Gold Fields was her first client and it afforded her a steep learning curve in all aspects of exploration target generation. Carina has now been an independent consultant for three decades, participating in and assisting mining companies with both target generation, as well as evaluating the results of the exploration of targets. Her work on mantle plumes has become all-absorbing, and she is interested in expanding this work both within and beyond the borders of Southern Africa, including the rest of Africa and other continents. 


About the book: Adding a Certainty Component to Prospecting: Decoding Aeromagnetic Maps using the Secrets of Hotspots

Adding a certainty component to prospecting by Carina Lemmer


Hotspot plumes created mineral rich ore bodies all over South Africa and Namibia.

To find them required surface exploration, remotely sensed data and drilling. All these processes are expensive and financially high risk.

This book outlines how analysis of aeromagnetic maps revealed a logical system that explains how the known deposits got there. With this knowledge a prospecting campaign attains a revolutionary component of certainty. The book reveals the secrets of the tracks of fifteen mantle plumes or “hotspots” that visited Southern Africa over a period of billions of years.

It further explains how, as a result, this portion of the African continent was initiated and how it was built out to the sub-continent that is there today. The book introduces the notion of "platelets" that moved after the departure of a hotspot, and explains the reasons why such movement could be sustained for a period.


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